What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a learning disability that mostly impairs the ability to read and write. However, it has an impact on more than just these abilities. Dyslexia is an information processing disorder. Dyslexics may have trouble understanding and retaining what they see and hear, which can interfere with learning and literacy development. Dyslexia can also affect other aspects of a person's life, such as organizational abilities.

It's crucial to realize that there are advantages to thinking in a different way. Many dyslexics excel in areas like reasoning, as well as visual and artistic fields.


Dyslexia impairs a person’s ability to read and spell words accurately and fluently.

Dyslexia is defined by problems with phonological awareness, verbal memory, and verbal processing speed. Dyslexia affects people of all intellectual abilities.

There are no clear cut-off points and its best thought of as a continuum rather than a distinct category. Language, physical coordination, mental calculation, concentration, and personal organization are all examples of co-occurring issues, but they are not dyslexia symptoms in and of themselves.

Examining how the individual responds or has responded to well-founded intervention can provide a solid indication of the degree and duration of dyslexia issues.

Warning Signs of Dyslexia:

The warning signs of dyslexia are most noticeable when children enter school and learn to read and write, but symptoms can start as early as pre-school.

Here are five significant red flags to check for in your school-aged children:

1. Letters are reversed or jumbled by students:

Your youngster may have dyslexia if they reverse the letters b and d, p and q, or write the letters m for w. Vertically or horizontally, these letters can be flipped. The word can now be won. It's also possible that your pupil will mirror write full sentences.

Reversals are common in children under the age of eight, but by third grade, they should be gone. If your child is still reversing letters and numbers or mirror writing at this point, it could be a sign of dyslexia.

2. Trouble Recalling Words:

"Can you get that thing for me, Mom?" or "Hand it over to me." A child may have dyslexia if basic words do not always flow freely from their mouth.

Children with dyslexia tend to use pronouns or words that lack specificity in their sentences. Filler words such as "uh" might be used to pass the time while your pupil tries to recall a word. A dyslexic child knows precisely what they want to say, but they have trouble finding the correct words to say it.

When a dyslexic child is asked to write a tale, they frequently can't come up with the right term or can't figure out how to spell it. For a dyslexic child, recalling names, reciting the months of the year in order, or even remembering the days of the week can be difficult.

3. Have Spelling Issues:

The child may have dyslexia if they spell words exactly as they sound without using any spelling standards. When writing, these kids employ a phonetic spelling system. A common challenge is mispronouncing sed for said or shud for should.

Dyslexic children also have trouble distinguishing between homophones such as their and there. These children may also reverse the order of two letters, particularly when double vowels are involved, such as writing dose for does. Sometimes the vowels are simply omitted entirely.

4. Have horrible handwriting:

The child may have dyslexia if their handwriting is unreadable and loaded with spelling errors. Some of the most common symptoms of Dysgraphia, or poor handwriting, include:

Letters with odd starting and ending points are written with a tight and distinctive pencil grip.

On the paper, there is an irregular spatial structure that does not follow the margins or keep the characters on the lines.

Issues with punctuation, capitalization, and the addition of big run-ons and fragmented phrases

5. Difficulty in Reading:

If you find that your child is having trouble learning to read, such as difficulty sounding out words and reading fluency, they may have dyslexia.

Dyslexics have a difficult time deciphering new words or breaking words down into chunks and sounding them out. Reading fluency cannot grow if the decoding process is not strong.

Reading with Dyslexia:

Need to read anything several times to make sense of it and understand what it means. Read slowly and take a long time to read. It may also be difficult for them to remember what they have read. If they discover that their reading is incorrect, they may add or miss words.

They lose their place and must start over. Find it difficult to focus on the page; it may appear distorted and need a lot of concentration and effort. This is extremely exhausting. They find reading difficult due to unfamiliar or new terminology that is difficult to recall. They misread common words or phrases.

Writing with Dyslexia:

They discover that spelling is a struggle for them, particularly with short words. Spell words the way they sound Confuse words or leave them out Write slowly, generating many draughts Write rapidly in an attempt to capture their thoughts before they fade away.

Have trouble understanding what they've written when they read it back; struggle to structure and organize their thoughts in writing; find it challenging to express oneself accurately in writing.

Auditory Short-Term Memory (ASTM):

Exam information, names, methods, and directions are difficult to recall.

Finding words, mispronunciation, listening, and structuring and expressing things in the correct order are all issues with oral skills.

Performing many tasks at once — integrating two or more activities, such as listening and writing.

Short-Term Visual Memory:

  • Problems with math.
  • Time management.
  • Left-right confusion and coordination.
  • Sequencing and ordering issues.

Secondary Characteristics of Dyslexia:

  • Anxiety, stress, and panic are all symptoms of anxiety.
  • Lack of self-esteem, inability to like or value oneself.
  • Tiredness, exhaustion, and burnout. Anger and frustration.

Dyslexia positive Advantages:

Even though dyslexia can impair spelling and decoding skills, it also appears to be linked to a variety of strengths and talents. People with dyslexia frequently have strong abilities in parts of the brain controlled by the right side. Artistic, athletic, and mechanical abilities are among them.

People with dyslexia are typically intelligent and creative thinkers. They have an uncanny ability to think "outside the box." Many dyslexics have high 3-D imagery abilities, musical flair, problem-solving creativity, and people skills. Math, physics, the arts, journalism, and other creative industries are all areas where many people excel.

As a divergent thinker, a dyslexic learner can:

  • Be creative, analytical, and innovative.
  • Be a creative thinker, a problem solver, a creative writer, a poet, and a strong communicator.

Difficulty in Dyslexia:

Dyslexia is derived from the Greek words dys, which means poor, and lexia, which means language. In a nutshell, dyslexia is a neurological condition that affects language and reading abilities, as well as spelling, writing, speaking, remembering, and listening.

Poor phonemic awareness is a major challenge for people with dyslexia. The ability to recognize that spoken language is made up of sound segments is known as phonemic awareness (phonemes).

To put it another way, a dyslexic student's brain has difficulties breaking down a word into its separate sounds and manipulating them. A dyslexic, for example, may only hear one or two of the three consonants in a word with three sounds.

Dyslexics find it difficult to transform the letters of the alphabet into a phonetic code because they have trouble understanding the internal sound structure of the spoken word, to begin with (decoding).

Challenges of Dyslexia:

Dyslexics' scholastic difficulties frequently lead to emotional and self-esteem disorders throughout their life. Low self-esteem might result in bad grades and performance. Teachers and parents frequently label dyslexic students as lazy, defiant, or unmotivated. These misunderstandings lead to feelings of rejection, isolation, inferiority, and discouragement.

Before a dyslexic child starts school, they are frequently regarded as eager, bright, and curious, all of which seem to enhance academic achievement. This inquisitive and cheerful temperament, on the other hand, might fade with time and be replaced by frustration, despair, and self-defeating coping techniques.

As a result, parents and teachers must address these concerns as soon as possible to support a child's social and emotional needs as well as provide effective reading intervention.

Learning Reading and Writing with Dyslexia:

Reading comes effortlessly to many of us. We automatically syllable words, apply spelling rules, and comprehend the concept of language. Learning to read with dyslexia is a difficult task. Reading and spelling must be explicitly and directly taught to these children.

Multisensory Education

A child with dyslexia will benefit from multisensory learning. The child learns all of the letters, letter combinations, sounds, and words through their visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic pathways when taught using a multisensory method. They notice it, speak it, hear it, and respond accordingly.

For example, a child learning the vowel combination 'oa' might gaze at the letter combination of an image of a GOAT, close their eyes and listen to the sound, then trace the letters in the air while saying it out loud.

Orton-Gillingham (Structured Literacy)

Orton-Gillingham is a teaching method for students who have difficulty reading and spelling. Although this method can be utilized with any student, it is most commonly used with dyslexic or reading-disabled pupils. In one-on-one tutoring, small group instruction, and even in the mainstream classroom, Orton-Gillingham is frequently employed.